How does cancer develop in the body?
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer develops when the body’s normal control mechanism stops working. Old cells do not die and instead grow out of control, forming new, abnormal cells. These extra cells may form a mass of tissue, called a tumor.
What is cfNA (cell free nucleic Acid)?
Non-encapsulated DNA in the blood or saliva is referred to as cfDNA (cell-free DNA) or ctDNA (circulating tumor DNA). When a cancer cell dies, mutant DNA (ctDNA) in the cell is released into the body fluid (such as blood or saliva) along with a large amount of expressed RNA (ctRNA). Similarily, During apoptosis or necrosis, cfDNA (nucleic acid fragments) enter the bloodstream. During cancer, elevated levels of cells leaves more cfDNA/cfRNA/ctDNA behind opposed to being cleaned up by macrophages. ctDNA-based liquid biopsies are useful for detecting early stage cancer. The goal of early detection is to diagnose cancer as early as possible when treatment may be most successful.